Iron and manganese are metals that occur frequently in private water systems, these metals exist naturally in groundwater that originates from certain types of rock. Natural sources of iron and manganese are more common in deeper wells where the water has been in contact with rock for a longer time. Iron and manganese often occur together in groundwater but manganese usually occurs in much lower concentrations than iron. Both iron and manganese are readily apparent in drinking water supplies. Both impart a strong metallic taste to the water and both cause staining. Water coming from wells and springs with high iron and/or manganese may appear color-less initially but orange-brown (iron) or dark brown-black (manganese) stains or particles quickly appear as the water is exposed to oxygen. Iron exists in three basic forms as elemental metallic iron, in Ferrous ( Fe++ clear iron ), and Ferric ( Fe+++ red iron ) states.
Iron and manganese are not health concerns in drinking water. Instead, they both have secondary or recommended drinking water standards because they cause aesthetic problems that make the water undesirable to use in the home and a bitter metallic taste that can make the water unpleasant to drink for both humans and animals.
Drinking Water Standards
Iron can also cause an orange or brown stain in sinks and in the laundry. Manganese often results in a dense dark brown-black stain or solid. For these reasons, it is recommended that drinking water have no more than 0.3 mg/L (or 0.3 parts per million) of iron and less than 0.05 mg/L of manganese. Private water systems, serving individual homes are not subject to provincial or federal drinking water standards. Thus, these standards only provide guidelines for the proper management of these types of water supplies.
Types of IRON removal systems:
Highly effective iron removal system without the use of chemicals, Uses air charge to oxidise iron, manganese, traces of sulphur, Precipitated contaminants trapped in media bed.
Chlorination systems reduces iron and manganese problems by oxidation/precipitation
Water Softeners / Conditioners reduces iron and manganese problems by Ion-exchange.